Acrodermatitis — varieties, treatment, prognosis
Causes of disease
As a result of medical research, it is possible to determine one of the causes of atrophic acrodermatitis — infection with a spirochete bacterium (Borrelia burgdorferi). In Russia, there is an incredible increase in the cases of the disease. This is due to the frequent summer attacks of mites, which are carriers of spirochetes. Once in the lymph nodes, bacteria multiply and invade the blood, affecting organs, systems, and skin. The disease can lead to severe complications, so it is advisable to have information about acrodermatitis in order to take immediate action.
Атрофический вид акродерматита на фото выглядит так:
Enteropathic and pustular acrodermatitis are not fully understood. There is a version that newborns acquire it by inheritance from parents in an autosomal recessive manner. The baby has a lack of zinc in the body, which provokes an inflammatory process on the skin. Child’s body is exposed to disorders in the digestive system due to enzyme dysfunction. The probability of inheriting such an illness increases significantly if there is a blood connection between the parents.
Hallopeau pustular acrodermatitis can appear as a result of injuries or under the influence of an infection. There are suggestions that the basis of this disease is neuro dystrophy. Nerve fibers are damaged, nerve impulse failure occurs. Because of the innervation of the tissues, the dermis becomes inflamed. Unfortunately, doctors still have not managed to figure out what the etiology of such a disease is. Even with the patient getting rid of the effects of injury and the destruction of infectious factors, it is not always possible to overcome the disease. Some doctors suggest that such acrodermatitis is pustular psoriasis. As you know, psoriasis is also not fully understood, so it is not possible to completely get rid of it.
Classification and characteristics of the skin disease
Acrodermatitis is divided into three separate species, each of which has its own characteristics and etiopathogenetic mechanisms:
- Enteropathic. The child is subject to a mental disorder, dysfunction of the digestive organs is observed, dystrophy is not excluded. Rash in the form of pustules and vesicles appears on the surface of the skin.
- Hallopeau pustular. Nail phalanges of extremities are affected. The rash in the form of oval pustules occurs symmetrically. The disease can spread in other areas of the body.
- Atrophic, also known as Lyme disease (the effect of Borrelia spirochetes), has 3 stages. Manifested in the form of bright maroon spots in areas of various sizes.
There are cases of atypical pediatric papular acrodermatitis, so-called Gianotti-Crosti syndrome, which is manifested by atypical papules.
ПрWith acrodermatitis the skin is affected, this is a common symptom of the disease. A more detailed picture has other characteristics, depending on the type of acrodermatitis.
Enteropathic type appears with birth and lasts up to one and a half years. The probability of the disease increases with artificial feeding. The manifestation of such acrodermatitis in later infants happens rarely, but it is still possible. The illness proceeds hard, actively progresses. Eyes, anus, mouth are affected. Multiple rashes may appear on different parts of the body, like the armpits, the surface and the inner part of the thighs, the genital area, under the knees, on the elbows. The formations on the skin are similar in appearance to psoriasis. Localized redness, swelling, plaques, suppuration crusts, erosion, ulcers are among the symptoms. In addition to the skin surface, the disease covers the mucous membrane and nails. The little patient suffers from dyspepsia, gains or loses weight. The general condition is aggravated by hair and eyelashes loss; blepharitis, conjunctivitis. Photophobia is not excluded.
На этом фото можно рассмотреть симптомы энтеропатического акродерматита:
Both children and adults, most often men, suffer from Hallopeau pustular acrodermatitis. The rash is localized on the phalanges of the fingers. In rare cases, the disease spreads to other areas. The main symptoms are purulent blisters, pustules with transparent contents (vesicular acrodermatitis), dry formations in the form of scales (erythematous-squamous acrodermatitis). The patient feels pain, burning, itching. There is a malignant form of Hallopeau pustular type, in which purulent rashes are expanded on the entire skin. As a result of disease progression, there is a loss of nails, tissue necrosis. The treatment is long and difficult. Relapse can make the case.
На фото представлен акродерматит Аллопо:
Atrophic type is characterized by infection of the body through ingestion of toxins from a spirochete mite. The onset of the disease is accompanied by erythema at the site of the bite. Acrodermatitis is persistent. Over time, even after several years, the inflammatory process can cause acrodermatitis of the extremities. Among main symptoms there are dark brown spots, atrophic skin becomes extremely thin. It can transform into dermatosclerosis and take on a malignant form.
На фото демонстрируются симптомы акродерматита атрофического боррелиозного, вызванного укусом клеща:
The first type of acrodermatitis, enteropathic, is determined by biochemical blood and urine tests, which are showing the balance of zinc. Diagnosis of the disease requires examination and consultation of a geneticist. He can carry out differentiation with a pathology of the digestive tract on the background of zinc deficiency.
For the diagnosis of pustular acrodermatitis, histological studies of the malpighian layer of the skin are carried out. The diagnostician conducts a comparative characterization with pyoderma, palmoplantar psoriasis, Andrews pustular disease, and other similar diseases.
The diagnosis of atrophic acrodermatitis can be established on the basis of analyzes of secretions on the skin. Serological reactions can also be used to detect the disease. In such a case antibodies to the pathogen that has entered the body (Borrelia spirochete) are detected in the blood.
Methods and effectiveness of treatmentя
Important factors for positive projections are the timeliness of treatment and the correct diagnosis.
Each type of acrodermatitis requires the development of separate treatment programs.
When we are talking about enteropathic type, dosage forms with zinc can be prescribed (vitamins C, E, A, active biological additives, suppositories). The course of treatment involves the use of missing enzymes for the digestive tract, probiotics, immune or gamma globulins. When relapses appear, antibiotics, antifungals are prescribed. Aniline dyes are used externally. The main thing is to prevent deadly sepsis.
To cure pustular type of acrodermatitis, corticosteroids with broad-spectrum antibiotics are prescribed (azithromycin, Levaquin). In addition to dyes, hormonal gels and ointments are prescribed. PUVA therapy is also an essential element in the struggle against acrodermatitis. Be sure to take into account the lesion of a particular organ and assign to its treatment. If you consistently perform all the doctor’s prescriptions, the outlook will positive.
To get rid of the chronic form of acrodermatitis, the doctor makes a course of treatment, taking into account the individual and age characteristics of the patient. Antibiotics and vitamins (vitamin E is extremely needed) are the main components of therapy. It is recommended to take hydrogen sulfide and/or radon baths for a month every day. Some physical procedures have a huge effect:
- Paraffin therapy.
- Medical wrapping
Preventive measures for acrodermatitis are difficult to determine if, for example, we are talking about an inheritance disease (enteropathic). However, we can talk about the prevention of pustular type. It is enough to be careful while being in nature for a long time to avoid being bitten by a mite. This kind of caution also applies to the atrophic type — try to avoid injuries and infections.
The main preventive measures remain traditional. You have to apply a healthy lifestyle, control your personal hygiene.
For those who have already suffered acrodermatitis, regular examination by a dermatologist and the implementation of his recommendations is mandatory:
- Balanced diet.
- Strengthening immunity.
- Hygiene rules.
- Rejection of bad habits.
- Wearing natural fiber clothing.
Conducting daily baths for 15-20 minutes with the addition of medicinal plants decoctions (calendula, chamomile, string, laurel, birch and pine buds) guarantees relief from acrodermatitis.
You can prepare ointments:
- Equal shares of honey and Kalanchoe juice;
- 1 part of clay white, 1 part of zinc in powder, 1 part of children’s powder and vegetable oil;
- Callisia fragrans flower juice (20 mg), Valerian root (5 g), vegetable oil (1 tbsp.), petroleum jelly (20 g).
- Dried Hypericum leaves and butter (4:1).
It makes sense to take advantage of folk advice, but you shouldn’t do it without medical consultation.