Allergic dermatitis in children — symptoms, photo, treatment, prognosis
It is important to know how cunning is allergic dermatitis (AD), especially in children. It does not pass by itself. Without proper treatment, it will continue to develop, negatively affecting the functioning of the whole organism.
What causes this disease affecting the skin? As a result of medical research, the following reasons were identified:
- Unstable work of the digestive tract (dysbacteriosis, constipation).
- The use of allergenic products by nursing mother.
- The diet of the infant, which requires adjustment. For example, early introduction of supplements, the use of citrus and other products containing allergens.
- The use of low-quality baby hygiene products.
- The use of bed linen, diapers, clothing made of synthetics, painted with aggressive impurities.
- The reaction to taking individual dosage forms.
- Bacteriological infections.
- Exposure to alkalis, acids.
- Air temperature, too high or frosty.
- Increased radiation background.
- Mechanical damage to the skin, after which pathogens or other irritants can penetrate into cracks and abrasions.
- Pollen flowers.
- The presence of pets.
The risk group includes children who regularly come into contact with allergens. The most dangerous is the case when the baby is already sick, but he was never protected from irritants. The result is an exacerbation of the disease and the transition to a more severe stage.
Classification and symptoms of AD in children
In places affected by skin pathology, there are swelling, redness, rash. With the further development of the disease, small spots filled with ichor are formed from a small rash. When they are opened, the wound becomes wet. In the process of drying, the tissue of the bursting bubble turns into a dense crust.
Parents have a duty not to miss the first symptoms when their child is just starting to complain of itching, soreness. He becomes irritable, eats and sleeps badly. Visually you can immediately notice the appearance of obvious signs even without a doctor, but you need to contact him immediately. Otherwise, the baby is expected to suffer even more from the chronic course of the disease over a long period. The worst thing is that the disease can be transformed into eczema.
Allergic dermatitis can be divided by age:
- Infant type arises from the first days of birth and can last up to 3 years. It spreads on the cheeks, chin, elbows, and knees. You can see the rash all over the body, such a progression of the disease can cause teething.
- Children type can occur in age from 3 to 12 years. Pathology affects the face, neck, legs, and arms. The rash is itchy, sore spots swell. Crusts form on wounds and cracks after soaking.
- A teenage form can hit the entire surface of the body. It is characterized by a lack of localization, acne can occur in the most unforeseen areas and suddenly disappear.
Remission of the disease is only a temporary phenomenon. Allergic dermatitis in young patients may change to the chronicle, periodically making itself known by the return of symptoms.
With regard to localization, it is worth noting that the favorite areas of this disease are the face, buttocks, groin, neck, and natural curves.
Being localized in a specific place, dermatitis is accompanied by associated symptoms. For example, when a rash appears on the face, tearing, coughing, a feeling of nasal congestion can be observed as well. Although such symptoms do not appear in all patients, in some of them dermatitis does not generally affect the general state of health.
At an early age, a hereditary predisposition to various allergies may appear. The most frequent is the rejection of some products containing flavoring agents, dyes, and other components that can cause an inadequate reaction. As soon as the baby begins to consume new products, it is during this period the diathesis appears, as a rule, on the face.
It is very important to monitor the behavior and condition of children after contact with pets, as a result of which rashes can appear on the cheeks. Often within half an hour, there is no trace left. However, carelessness is inappropriate here, because apart from external manifestations, there may be internal reactions. For example, swelling of the laryngeal mucosa. The saddest thing is that it is not always possible to save the baby from death. That is why it is so important to seek help from a doctor in a timely manner. He will diagnose and establish the kind of irritant from which you need to immediately protect the child.
Diathesis on the hands of children is also common because they like to touch everything with their hands. Sometimes it can cause an allergic reaction. There can be certain types of plants, improper soften creams etc. The effects of a mosquito bite or other insects also cause irritation of the skin, severe itching. After scratching, the inflammation increases, a secondary infection can connect to it.
Redness and small pimples may appear on the back of the palms after eating chocolate, sweet culinary products, citrus fruits, as well as pharmacological preparations with components that are intolerable for such an organism.
Baby’s hands should be reliably protected with warm mittens in frosty weather. Otherwise, there is no chance to avoid allergic dermatitis. Under the influence of too low temperature and wind gusts, delicate skin doesn’t stand up to it, and its integrity is disturbed. Cracks and swelling appear, which are accompanied by intolerable itching and pain.
Allergic dermatitis can manifest on the legs, thighs, calves, and under the child’s knees. Foot appears to be affected rarely. They swell, pimples turn into pustules. At the age of 8-9 months, this condition calls into question the likelihood of learning to walk. The affected tissues of the feet cause severe pain with each step, the child may refuse attempts and will be able to go on his own much later than usual.
На фото распространение аллергического дерматита у детей под коленками:
Features of the disease
In addition to identifying symptoms, the doctor must take into account the stage of the disease, it can be determined by the following features:
The first stage — edema, slight peeling, redness characteristic of the disease very beginning. Treatment at this stage guarantees favorable prognosis.
На фото первая стадия аллергического дерматита у детей:
The second — takes an acute or chronic form. The rash increases, suppurations form, wounds ooze, after which scales and coarse crusts appear.
На фото симптомы аллергического дерматита второй стадии:
The third is remission, in which the acute symptoms subside, but this does not mean that the disease has receded. Residual symptoms of diathesis remain for a long time: from 2-3 weeks to several years.
The fourth — the clinical picture is aligned, the symptoms gradually become barely noticeable, after which they disappear altogether.
For the purpose of competent treatment, diagnostics is carried out with a deep study of symptoms, determination of the source of allergy and the stage of the disease. Laboratory tests cannot be done here, in this regard, a small patient has to pass the next tests:
- Urine and blood tests to determine changes in their composition.
- Serological and immunological analysis.
- The affected tissues are checked for histology.
- Biopsy of the contents of the pustules for the determination of the pathogen and for the proper selection of antibiotic drugs.
- Allergic tests.
A complete history is examined and analyzed by the doctor, after which the final diagnosis is made. The doctor develops a course of therapy, all stages of which must be performed in a strict sequence.
How to get rid of allergic dermatitis
At the first stage of disease development, treatment is limited to home measures. If we are talking about newborns, it is enough to review the quality of nutrition. A nursing mother is not recommended to use allergenic products. With artificial nutrition it is needed to clarify the composition of baby food, taking into account the nature of the susceptibility of a child’s body. If necessary, light antihistamine medications are shown. Fenistil gel and drops for patients aged up to 6 months; for half a year and more — Zyrtec in drops.
The treatment of allergic diathesis in children goes differently. In some cases, it disappears after a certain period, in others it progresses and may even cause asthma.
The level of severity is determined by the effectiveness of the taken measures. If after the course of therapy the result is zero, the baby is hospitalized with the mother.
In a serious condition of a small patient, when the disease is started and doesn’t stop to progress, the doctor prescribes glucocorticoids. When infected, the patient receives antibiotics. For the general support of the body, complexes of agents containing useful minerals and vitamins are recommended.
For the relief of pain, elimination of burning and itching, children are prescribed:
These drugs do not contribute to increased drowsiness, it is impossible to get used to them.
In case of infection with streptococcus or staphylococcus, the following medications are used:
An allergist sometimes prescribes immunomodulators to help the infant cope with the advanced stage of the ailment. Drugs of this action are permissible to use only with the permission of the doctor, who will take into account contraindications. For example, their use is not allowed for people with autoimmune problems. Otherwise, they can not escape the negative consequences, because such agents are introduced into the immune system.
External remedies are recommended to be applied 1-2 times a day:
- The non-hormonal ointment will help to get rid of the weak symptoms (Fenistil, Keratolan).
- With the extensive spread of pathology, hormone-based agents can be used, like Diprosone, Flucort-N.
- Medrol, Aclovate can reduce the activity of an allergic reaction.
- For the rapid regeneration of the affected skin, Actovegin, Panthenol, Bepanthen are prescribed.
Physiotherapeutic procedures contribute not only to the consolidation of results but also lead to normal the general condition of the body, weakened by the disease:
- Laser therapy.
- Healing baths.
- Mud treatment.
- UV irradiation.
Traditional ways for treating AD
No matter how harmless the remedies made from medicinal plants may seem, they have to be used with extreme care. Be sure to consult a doctor. He will recommend passing a sensitivity test to each of the plants, like hop, periwinkle, beggarticks, chamomile, celandine. It is possible that some of them contain components that not every organism tolerates. As a result, the use of folk remedies is not recommended, because it can lead to exacerbation of the disease.
If there are no contraindications, you can prepare a decoction of the above-listed herbs. For 1 l of pure hot water, take 3 tbsp. of grass mass. After boiling, keep the mixture on a low fire for about 10 minutes and then leave it for 2-3 hours. This remedy can be used to treat diseased areas, as well as for bathing.
Tips for parents
The main thing is to ensure the living conditions of the child, so there is no place for allergens:
– if the disease is caused by a reaction to food, then you will have to revise the menu, discuss all the details with a nutritionist;
– when exposed to a stimulus in the form of dust, try to maintain cleanliness in the apartment, to do frequent wet cleaning, to air out the room. Get rid of carpets, cause they are the main collectors of dust;
– monitor the level of humidity in the room (the optimal rate is 60%);
– the air temperature in the nursery should not exceed 20 degrees;
– if the reason lies in the pet’s presence, then it is a signal to give it to those whom it brings only joy;
– a negative reaction to the feather means the immediate disposal of feather pillows;
– purchase clothes and bedding only from natural materials, soft texture.
It is possible to predict complete deliverance from allergic dermatitis only if timely addressing to a medical institution at the first suspicion of an ailment. The easier the degree of damage, the faster and for a long time you can get rid of it.
Parents who neglect medical advice put their own child’s health at risk. He can overcome such a serious complication, like bronchial asthma. And this is not the only negative consequence. In case of violation of the intracutaneous mineral metabolism, urticaria or psoriasis develops, which is almost impossible to get rid of.