Basal-cell carcinoma — the oncological disease. Photo, causes, treatment
The ailment can occur on any part of the body surface. The more dangerous are neoplasms, located near the eyes, mouth, nose, ears. In the process of development of basal-cell carcinoma, cartilage tissue is affected, destruction of the bones occurs. The origin of the disease has not yet been found. There is an assumption, supported by most researchers, that it is the epidermal cells that give rise to the development of basal-cell carcinoma.
На фото рак кожи – базалиома:
This type of oncology is characterized by the absence of metastases or their extremely rare occurrence. Only 100 cases of growth with the formation of daughter cells were recorded. This fact does not mean that this illness is easier and less dangerous than other types of malignant tumors. At first sight, it seems harmless because the disease is not so aggressive and not so rapidly affects the tissue. In reality, everything is much more dangerous. Basalioma can penetrate the brain and hit it, as a result of which a person may die.
The risk group includes people over the age of 50, especially light-skinned, regardless of gender. There are also claims that genetic predisposition plays a role in transmitting illness from one generation to another. Also, those who are engaged in work related to atomic energy, are constantly under the open sun and/or are going in a solarium frequently can be placed in the risk group.
Causes of this disease can be divided into two types: compulsory and relative.
The first includes such precancerous conditions:
- Xeroderma pigmentosum.
- Bowen’s disease.
- Paget’s disease.
- Erythroplasia of Queyrat.
In the case of Xeroderma pigmentosum, which belongs to the category of hereditary diseases caused by exposure to ultraviolet radiation, irreversible processes occur in the dermis layers. If there is no enzyme in the body that performs the function of neutralizing melanin released during solar tanning, this is the reason for the formation of new growth. In order to restore the destroyed DNA chain under the influence of solar radiation, another important enzyme must be present in the body. If not, then the person can be affected by basal-cell carcinoma. Staying in the open sun is not recommended for such people, otherwise, a gradual mutation of the cells will lead to atrophy and the tumor will be transformed into a malignant neoplasm.
Bowen’s disease refers to precancerous, it can affect people, regardless of gender. Among causes, there is prolonged exposure to ultraviolet radiation, chemicals, as well as papillomavirus. The appearance of a spot with a curved contour is the first signal to visit a doctor. It develops rather slowly, gradually turning into a plaque. Its surface acquires a different texture: smooth, velvety, purple-red at the beginning of development. Further, it becomes rough, dense with a copper shade. Scales, sores, erosion may appear on the surface.
Paget’s disease affects the mammary glands in people aged 50 and older. Initially, there is a reddening of the nipple, the touches cause irritation, the bordering skin is dry, it peels off. All this causes uncontrollable itching. The pathological place begins to ache, a burning sensation appears, a blood serum fluid is released from the nipple. The nipple is retracted, the skin around becomes like an orange peel. The tumor is located deep in the dermis, which causes swelling of the sweat and sebaceous glands. Lymph nodes are enlarged and painful.
Erythroplasia of Queyrat is a male disease (40 to 70 years), affects the head of the penis. This disease is a precursor of a cancerous tumor. Looks like a shiny spot or cluster of plaques focused on the foreskin. The pain is absent, you can notice a slight outgrowth above the skin.
Relative reasons include:
- keratoacanthoma is a benign tumor that appears on open areas, sometimes captures the genitals, the mucous membranes of the nose, mouth. Men suffer from this disease twice as often as women. The diameter of the affected area is from 1 to 2 inches (5.08 cm), in rare cases, it can reach 8 inches (20.32 cm). It can disappear suddenly and, conversely, degenerate into a malignant tumor;
- trophic ulcers are not an independent illness, but a consequence of other diseases. The reasons for their appearance: diabetes, varicose veins. They are oval or rounded non-healing wounds, from which sticky contents are extracted. Ulcers are constantly getting wet;
- sunny keratosis is peeling of the skin with the appearance of foci of pink-white hue. Histological examination revealed altered cells (metaplasia and dysplasia), which is considered to be a precancerous cell condition;
- seborrheic acanthoma is a keratosis which struck elder people. The similarity of the tumor appears on the closed parts of the body, looks like an inflamed place, covered with oily crusts. Able to grow in size, reject, may cause cracks appearance. It grows very slowly, within decades. Only 7% of cases of cancer conversion were recorded;
- radiation ulcers occur after ionizing radiation impact. The development of the disease is rapid, goes through several stages: first, the body turns red, then blisters appear, which then merge. After a day, a huge bulla with serous fluid covers the body. After a spontaneous dissection, the bottom of the ulcer opens. Usually, such formations do not heal but recur. Metaplasia occurs, which in most cases leads to malignant tumors;
- keloid scars appear after various wounds and look like a tissue defect. Detritus fills the cavities formed when tissue is damaged. Thus, a tight scar is formed. By itself, it is not invasive and does not reform into cancer. But sometimes it grows inside and applies the pressure on the internal organs, thereby causing chronic diseases. In this case, it must be removed;
- a cutaneous horn is a growth on the forehead with a length of 1 inch (2.54 cm) or more with a rough, dense, sometimes elastic, surface. It is important to consider that such a horn is a precursor of a malignant formation in a quarter of cases;
- syphilis granulomas and gumma. They can appear with a significant complication of the disease when the level of a body weakening is proportional to the level of syphilis pathogens’ activity (Treponema pallidum). Skin wounds lose the ability to heal, there are obvious signs of metaplasia, which indicates a precancerous condition;
- tuberculosis abscess occurs during a secondary infection or after unprofessionally made BCG vaccination. It may appear on the shoulder or in the spinal region. The “melting” of an individual vertebra is a triggering factor. The abscess begins to encapsulate even further. There is pus in the form of crumbs or cheesy mass inside that come out of an open abscess. With prolonged nonhealing, ulcers and fistulas are formed. They are the main signs of future cancer.
The appearance of basal-cell carcinoma is most likely takes place when the following causes are added:
- The presence of freckles provokes excessive absorption of ultraviolet rays.
- A big number of birthmarks, which are benign neoplasms, can lead to degeneration into a malignant form (melanoma). This neoplasm is actively developing and transformed into basalioma.
- ПObtaining excess sunburn leads to an inflammatory process of the skin surface, increasing the rate of reparative activity. The proliferation of connective tissue becomes a good ground for cancer.
- Interaction with arsenic and its derivatives. Evaporation of poison is deposited on the skin, and also penetrates the body with breathing. Arsenic tends to accumulate in the nails and hair. The result is an inflammation of the deeper layers of the skin. After this, dysplasia is formed. The next stage will be a malignant tumor.
- Contact with oil and tar products. People belonging to the category of workers in enterprises where they will be in contact with such substances are at risk of acquiring basalioma. Firstly, the skin becomes excessively dry, then eczema and cancer appear. The disease can affect the lungs, dermis and even the brain.
- Obtaining burns or frostbites is also fraught with consequences because, after exposure to high temperature or severe frost wounds, keloid scars are formed. All this entails a process of malignancy.
- Immunodeficiency characterizes with a weakened organism with exhausted protective resources. So it is not able to withstand cancer formations.
According to ICD-10, the disease is designated as C44.
Basal-cell cancer can take the following forms:
The most problematic is atrophic because it’s capable of quickly hitting healthy skin, increasing in size. Inside the necrotic process can be observed.
Ulcerated type arises on the later stages of the disease when the tissues of the human body are eroded to the bone.
The pigmented form has much in common with melanoma, differs only in dark color.
Turban is a purple-red tumor (there may be many), has a thick stem.
Warty basal-cell carcinoma grows only on the surface. It looks like cauliflower sprouts.
This type of oncology is clearly different from other because of the rare occurrence of metastases. So when considering the stages of the disease, the metastasis parameter does not take into account.
The initial stage: pathological formation with a diameter of up to 1 inch (2.54 cm), looks like a usual pimple, then turns into a bubble with a dense surface. It is painless and has a pink or gray shade, looks like a small “pearly” bump. On palpation, it is mobile as if it is separated from the skin surface.
These formations can be multiple, after a certain time they merge, blood vessels are clearly visible on its surface.
During the second stage, such formation penetrates into the epidermal layers. It doubles in its size until it touches the subcutaneous tissue. Erosion appears. When removing the scab, which covers the tumor, a sign in the form of a crater hollow remains on the body.
The third stage of development starts with deep ingrowth of the formation into the skin. Pain appears and lymph nodes may be enlarged. This stage is the dangerous onset of destructive processes in deep tissues. Therefore, it is better to start treatment as soon as possible.
The last stage accompanied by the damage of muscle, cartilage and bone tissue, as well as nerves, which causes severe pain.
Treatment of this disease is carried out exclusively on an individual basis, taking into account the characteristics of the body and the type of tumor.
The main methods include radiation and/or chemotherapy. There are cases when it is advisable to apply only such treatment. For example, a tumor on the face cannot be removed by surgery.
Radiation therapy is used to destroy abnormal cells, to prevent further spread, if the tumor is up to 2 inches (5.08 cm) in diameter. Older patients are also contraindicated for surgical interventions, so pharmacological preparations and radiation can be prescribed for them.
The chemotherapy complex includes the use of external cystatins for lotions to the areas affected by the tumor: methotrexate and fluorouracil.
Phototherapy was recently recognized as the most effective way to treat basalioma. It causes slightly less negative effects than radiation. This method does not affect healthy cells, acting exclusively on malignant ones. Under the action of ultraviolet radiation, a photosensitizing substance is directed at cancer cells. As a result, they die.
Surgical methods are used quite often. Speaking more precisely, this is the Mohs surgery, when the formation is gradually removed layer by layer until the tissue is freed from the last cancer cell. Each cut out material is examined under a microscope to determine the nature of the mass removed.
This method is not always used, for example, it is contraindicated if the tumor is on the face.
At the initial stage of the disease development, the oncologist can use the following agents for removing small-sized tumors:
- Liquid nitrogen.
- Neodymium or carbon dioxide laser.
The main feature of basal-cell carcinoma is a slow rate of growth and a noticeable appearance, unlike other skin pathologies. Basically, people have time to apply and start early treatment. Due to this, 9 patients out of 10 manage to get rid of malignant tumors in case of early stages.
More sad predictions for patients with the last stage, when relapse reached the moment of destruction of bones and cartilages. The patient will have to undergo a comprehensive course of treatment, but the guarantee of recovery is very small.
The conclusion suggests the following: the basalioma is not as terrible in the early phases. Therefore, doctors strongly recommend: as soon as the body has an unusual appearance of a red spot, outlined with an inflamed border, it’s time to turn to a specialist. Do not try to get rid of it by yourself. In this case, its integrity may be broken, which is fraught with the acceleration of growth.