Demodicosis — a mite lesion. Only a doctor knows how to treat
Causes of the disease
What is demodicosis? What features does it have and why does it occur? Many people ask these questions, but not everyone realizes that the main cause of the disease is a parasitic mite.
About 90% of the world’s population has this parasite, but only 5-10% of people have demodicosis. This skin disease arises only under the below-mentioned conditions for its reproduction:
- Stress states that have become chronic, psychological injuries, nervous system overload.
- Passion for high-fat and carbohydrate foods.
- Uncontrolled stay in the open sun, a passion for artificial tanning in the solarium.
- Frequent visits to the bath, sauna.
- Wrong selection of cosmetics.
Causes of demodicosis human can be divided into internal and external.
- A weakening of immunity leads to an inability to resist foreign microorganisms.
- The depletion of the body entails a disruption of the functions of the whole organism.
- Chronic infectious diseases (malaria, HIV, tuberculosis, hepatitis, toxoplasmosis), which put additional stress on the immune system.
- Helminth infections inhibit the body’s defenses, depleting their resources, which provoke other diseases, among which may be demodicosis.
- Hormonal imbalance, affecting the functions of the sweat and sebaceous glands.
- The injuries provoke the activation of the adrenal hormones’ synthesis, which contributes to a decrease in immunity.
- Complex surgeries lead to a significant reduction in immune resources.
- Autoimmune diseases can provoke a process when the immune system destroys its own tissues.
- Oncological diseases make the body completely defenseless, unable to fight even with simple types of pathogens.
- Disorder of the digestive tract, where the bacterium Helicobacter pylori can appear, leading to a peptic ulcer. According to many medical scientists, this bacterium contributes to a sharp increase in immunoglobulin E, when secondary infection occurs. The body becomes available for exposure to conditionally pathogenic microorganisms, which include the Demodex mite.
- The presence of skin pathologies of various etiologies.
- During pregnancy state, the testosterone hormone is activated, which increases the production of sebum, which is the main food for the parasitic mite.
- Diabetes leads unbalanced metabolic processes, as a result of which the skin becomes thin, easily vulnerable. The internal pressure of the cell is significantly reduced, the protective functions of the skin are reduced to zero.
- During Cushing’s disease, the number of hormones increases markedly as a result of the activation of the adrenal cortex. When there are too many hormones such as aldosterone, testosterone, cortisol, obesity begins. It is fraught with serious consequences: impotence in men and amenorrhea in women. This disease can provoke parasitic mites activity.
- Exposure to heat, because the parasite prefers warm conditions. That is why thermal procedures are so dangerous.
- Geographical aspect can also be in charge. A certain number of mite carriers are observed in different parts of the planet. It is noticed that the population of New Zealand almost doesn’t suffer from this disease. And residents of large European and American megalopolises are subject to demodicosis in 60% of cases.
- Passion for bad habits.
- Long-term use of pharmacological drugs containing hormones.
- Climatic features and harmful ecology can put an excessive load on the body, which leads to a number of diseases, including skin ones.
This type of pathology is treatable, it must be prescribed by a doctor and carried out under his guidance and control.
According to ICD-10, the disease is classified as B88.0. Regarding the habitat of the parasite there are such features of the disease:
- Localization of the pathogenic mite in the locations of the sebaceous glands: limbs, chest, back. The affected areas are reddened, thicken, the rash can appear.
- Reproduction of the parasite on the scalp.
- The lesion of the eyelids, due to the fact that there are meibomian glands that produce a fat-like product on their edges.
There are also cases of mixed forms when the mites attack several parts of the body.
Forms of pathology are considered in the type of disease display:
- Erythematous is a redness on the skin with clear outlines. The fiber is edematous, thinned and easily injured around the affected area.
- Papular-pustular is acne with a diameter of up to 1 inch which causes soreness from touching due to the inflamed surface. Rashes can be pink, red and purple. This is due to the fact that the ducts of the sebaceous glands overlap with the bodies of mites. The exchange process does not work, the secreted substance accumulates in the hair follicles and pores.
- Hypertrophied is the advanced stage. It is characterized by the formation of seals, impaired pigmentation. The metabolic processes on the skin are blocked, the epidermis does not receive the necessary nutrition and is not exempt from the product produced by the sebaceous glands.
- The lesion of the eyelids can be manifested in the form of blepharitis or conjunctivitis, a whitish strip is formed at the base of the eyelashes. Eyelashes become thin and fall out. Sometimes hypertrophy occurs, when the eyelids become thickened, closure during sleep and blinking is extremely difficult.
- Demodicosis of the head is a rash which becomes noticeable under the hair, especially when washing or brushing them.
Symptoms of demodicosis
Each form of the disease is somewhat different in symptoms. If the head and torso are affected, the following symptoms are observed:
- The formation of nodes, bumps, rash, due to blockage of the sebaceous gland duct, through which the secreted liquid is brought out. It accumulates and creates ideal conditions for feeding and reproduction of the parasite.
- An unnatural shine of the skin, from which it is impossible to get rid of. It doesn’t disappear even after thorough washing.
- Burning and itching are more pronounced at night when the peak of parasite activity comes. The high temperature in the room can increase itching.
- Arterial hyperemia is reflected on the skin in red color.
- Changes in pigmentation and epithelial density.
- The wings of the nose are enlarged; this is due to the transformation of functioning tissue into connective tissue, due to the sclerosis of tissues. Such a sign indicates a severe form and leads to rhinophyma (the shape of the nose acquires a new enlarged form).
When eyelids are infected, the following signs may be observed:
- Increased fatigue even from minor loads.
- The tear film becomes thinner.
- The eyelids thicken and/or swell.
- Eyelashes stick together.
- The eyelids turn red.
- The process of inflammation of the eyelids is progressing.
- The loss of eyelashes.
- Severe itching and burning.
- There are pustules, scales, crusts on the eyelids.
The mite finds the most favorable habitats for its reproduction. These are the parts of the body where the sebaceous and meibomian glands are located:
- The space under the eyebrows.
- Rib cage.
- The crease between the nose and the lip.
It is worthwhile to look more closely at demodicosis of the eyes. Mites are happy to feed with the secreted substance produced by the meibomian glands. This product is necessary to lubricate the eyelids and prevent excessive moisture from the tear fluid. When colonies of mites settle in the eye area, a person experiences real suffering. The patient feels discomfort: his eyes itch and burn, they are unable to close normally, there could be purulent discharges. All these factors are obvious manifestations of the mite presence.
Diagnosis of demodicosis
It will be rather difficult to determine the diagnosis correctly only by external symptoms because they can lead astray the similarity characteristic of other skin ailments. However, such an important point, as the detection of the mite itself completely closes the question of diagnosis, it is unambiguously confirmed.
To do this, the following procedure can be conducted: the affected area with symptoms of erythema, edema, rash, is scraped with a scalpel. The patient is warned in advance that before this he can’t use detergents.
Taken biological material is examined under a microscope, which allows to easily detect a parasitic mite.
Ways of treatment
This type of skin disease becomes chronic in most cases. In this regard, the complex treatment is shown, which includes not only medication but also the observance of the hygiene rules, as well as general strengthening measures:
- All procedures associated with high temperatures are excluded: solarium, solar baths, hot showers, bathing in hot springs.
- Change underwear and bedclothes every day. After daily washing, be sure to iron it.
- Control of the level of moisture and cleanliness of the face skin: washing with cold water, applying moisturizing creams with antiseptic properties containing alginate substances, urea, hyaluronic acid.
- Therapeutic diet.
Medication includes the use of such external agents:
– An ointment, the main component of which is salicylic acid, turpentine, tar, sulfur, fenacin, is able to destroy parasitic mites;
– Permethrin ointment is detrimental for both larvae and adult parasites;
– Demelan cream, consisting of 17 components, perfectly cleanses and moisturizes the skin;
– Demelan cream can be used simultaneously with anti-parasitic drugs, acting on the function of the sebaceous glands in terms of reducing sebum production. There is a situation created in which the mites do not have enough food, and they die. Sulfur blocks the reproduction of parasites, as a result, they are gradually completely destroyed.
– Ichthammol ointment gives anti-inflammatory effect. As a result, after the destruction of the pathogenic environment, itching subsides, and the swelling disappears.
In case of demodicosis of the eye, the use of ichthammol+zinc ointment, Demelan and Blepharo cream, as well as the next eye-drops are provided:
- Carboholic drops.
- Demodex drops.
- Tobramycin and other antibacterial and hormonal drugs.
Sometimes a 10-day course of quinoline drugs (Chingaminum, Hydroxychloroquine, Chloroquine) can be prescribed, as well as antihistamines and Metronidazole.
Physiotherapy treatment is limited to the next procedures: electrophoresis, ozone therapy, and cryotherapy.
The composition of food consumed is no less important than skin care. So it is recommended to make a special daily ration for the duration of the treatment course, including next measures:
- limitation of salt, sugar, spices.
- Stop smoking or smoke fewer cigarettes.
- Limitation of too hot food.
- Completely exclude alcoholic beverages, fatty, fried, spicy dishes.
- Add more vegetables, herbs, fruits, and berries to the menu.
- Prefer whole-grain bread products.
- Eat more milk products.
- To cleanse the toxins with which parasitic insects have permeated the body, it is advised to eat foods rich in dietary fiber.
By the way, diet is a great helper for chronic demodicosis.
In the photo, symptoms of the started demodicosis form:
Possible consequences of the disease
If you are irresponsible, you can help the disease extent to such form that the final recovery will be a big question. If you do not carry out the treatment, the anxiety from the itch will become so great that the patient will comb the places affected by parasites more and more. Scratches and cracks are an open gate for any infection that easily penetrates and provokes inflammation. If it is such a serious infection as staphylococcus, streptococcus or, for example, a herpes virus, nothing good is expected. The patient will have many problems to endure a secondary infection, which also causes such complications:
- Pustular rash.
The faster you find the cause of demodicosis and resort to professional treatment, the much easier it is to stabilize health and prevent complications.