Diagnosis and treatment of dermatitis — a description of the symptoms and photos
Signs and causes of dermatitis
The skin protects the body from the effects of the environment and has a medical name — derma. In medical practice skin disease caused by external or internal factors has been called dermatitis. Official medicine identifies 2 main causes of the appearance of the disease:
- hereditary — when one of the carriers of the disease is a parent or another inherited predisposition to dermatitis of all kinds;
- newly acquired — appear as a result of external factors (frequent stressful situations, exposure to various types of allergens, solar radiation, low or high temperatures, highly corrosive liquids), and appear due to the body’s response to medication, food, flower pollen, animal hair, detergents, cosmetics, insect bites.
The practice of medical observations and research has established that not all people are subject to the disease. Many have individual innate resistance and an increased ability of the body to prevent the development of dermatitis.
Despite the causes of the disease, dermatitis has characteristic common features:
- itching of the skin of various duration and intensity, accompanied by redness and rash;
- rash on face, hands, neck. Depending on the type of dermatitis, the rash may have the appearance of scales, spots;
- any dermatitis is accompanied by peeling of the skin;
- redness of the skin;
- blistering of the skin with fluid inside.
Types of dermatitis and methods of its treatment
The World Health Organization (WHO) approved the normative document “International Classification of Diseases”, which systematized several dozen types of dermatitis with a detailed description and principles of their treatment.
This is the most complex type of dermatitis that occurs on the human body, where there are many sebaceous glands. The head, eyelets, labial triangle, places on the front of the chest and between the shoulder blades are among such areas.
The causative agent of this dermatitis is a fungus that every person has. With the active work of the sebaceous glands, the fungus processes the secreted fat, the amount of the fungus increases dramatically. As a result, the skin becomes inflamed, which is accompanied by the destruction of the skin at the cellular level, itching and peeling.
In people with congenital or acquired immunodeficiencies, exposed to constant stress, having a sedentary lifestyle due to overweight or disability, during adolescence, in breastfed infants, seborrheic dermatitis is more common than in others.
Often there is dandruff, which is considered as the initial period of the disease. Failure to take timely preventive measures contributes to the development and aggravation of the disease. Spots and bubbles of a yellowish-red hue appear that grow into flaky, oily or dry plaques. The ever-increasing dense crust is formed under the scalp. In the area of natural skin folds (nasal wings, ears) the crust cracks, causing unpleasant constant itching.
In medical practice, the simultaneous damage to various parts of the body (the head, torso, face) can be observed.
If timely treatment is not carried out, seborrheic dermatitis can contribute to the development of other, more complex diseases, like hair loss, a severe form of acne.
How to treat seborrheic dermatitis
As well as in the case of any disease, medicine recommends a complex treatment:
- eliminate the causes of the normalization of the metabolic process in the body to suppress the increased activity of the microflora’s development;
- elimination of disease’ signs.
Treatment of seborrheic dermatitis should begin with balancing the diet reducing the consumption of sweet, fatty and spicy foods, smoked meats. To improve digestion, stabilize the work of the digestive organs, the doctor may prescribe the appropriate enzyme preparations. To improve the provision of a diseased person with vitamins, it is necessary to increase the amount of used A, B, C complexes of vitamins, which favorably affect the condition of the skin and improve metabolic processes at the cellular level.
It is equally important to take antimicrobial agents and drugs that reduce the development of the causative agent.
The use of ointments, aerosols, gels during therapy plays an important role since such drugs act purposefully. They relieve itching, soften or dry the crust, reduce peeling.
All agents are divided into 2 types:
- hormonal — to quickly stop the development of inflammation and increase immunity. Such drugs may have side effects and therefore are taken only on prescription;;
- non-hormonal — based on pyrithione zinc, salicylic acid, which are not inferior to hormonal remedies, but have no side effects.
It is not recommended to self-medicate seborrheic dermatitis without qualified consultation of the doctor.
Papular-spotted eruptions of an inflammatory nature around the mouth, on the chin and adjacent parts of the face, are the main signs of oral dermatitis.
Mostly women suffer from this type of dermatitis, because of:
- synchronous use of various types of cosmetic products for skin care of the face;
- the occurrence of immune imbalance through excessive use of fluorinated ointments;
- allergic reaction to immune disorders in the body;
- disruption of the digestive system due to the disease of its organs.
At the beginning of the disease, single red pimples appear on the chin, gradually grouping into separate spots and spreading to the corners of the mouth and the entire area of the upper lip. In the beginning, the pimples are filled with a small amount of clear liquid. After some time, scaly crusts and pustules form.
This disease is characteristic of people in the age group of 20-35 years. For men with a weakened immune system who use specific kinds of toothpaste, shaving products, the likelihood of oral dermatitis increases. The presence of transferred viral or infectious diseases increases the risk of the disease several times.
Oral dermatitis therapy
In most cases, this type of skin disease is treated in a very simple way — streamlining and minimizing the number of cosmetic creams, ointments, lipsticks used, changing personal hygiene products. Choosing cosmetic products for both men and women, one should focus on hypoallergenic products that minimize the risk of allergy.
This type of chronic dermatitis refers to an extensive group of skin diseases of the allergic nature of the delayed or immediate type. Most often it materializes due to improper therapeutic measures or defective treatment of allergic dermatitis. An important risk factor for the disease is constant stressful situations, violation of the regime and diet, sleep and wakefulness, a long stay in dusty places.
Heredity plays a key role in the development of atopic dermatitis. And if it cannot be cured in adolescence, it accompanies a person throughout life in various forms of manifestation, accompanied by a disorder of the central and autonomic nervous system. At the same time disturbance of activity of a digestive tract can be observed.
An exact diagnosis of the disease is established by the doctor on the basis of a number of special tests performed. Blood, feces, urine, and the determination of allergens that cause allergic reactions in humans should be studied.
How to treat atopic dermatitis
Therapy of such dermatitis is carried out comprehensively, after all the tests and additional consultation with other specialists. A set of activities includes:
- a diet that excludes the use of foods that cause an allergic reaction;
- strict patient compliance with the treatment-and-prophylactic regimen;
- external and drug therapy;
A separate type of getting rid of the disease can be a spa treatment, which in combination with the above-mentioned measures gives a positive result.
Allergic Contact Dermatitis
It is called contact dermatitis because inflammation on the skin occurs at the site of contact with the allergen. Currently, this disease is the most common, but it is not contagious, it is simply an ordinary inflammatory reaction of the skin to an irritating source. The formation of inflammation occurs as follows:
- when an allergen contacts human skin, it contributes to the development of additional antibodies, thereby creating a hypersensitivity to a specific pathogen;
- on subsequent contact with such an allergen, the body reacts with the appearance of inflammation, and dermatitis occurs.
Each person forms a hypersensitivity to one particular or group of substances with a similar chemical composition, which becomes an allergen for this organism.
The list of allergenic substances is different for each organism. Initially, the skin is covered with red spots in the place where there was contact with the allergen, then small bubbles with liquid appear. After they burst, the liquid spreads over the skin. When dried, a crust with small scales appears.
All allergens can be formed in groups:
- latex — children’s nipples, gloves, etc.;
- medicines — antibiotics, certain types of creams and ointments;
- cosmetics — lipsticks, creams, shampoos, soaps, gels;
- synthetic clothing;
- jewelry, which includes nickel;
- paint, ink;
Treatment of allergic dermatitis
The main condition in the treatment of contact allergic dermatitis is the complete elimination of the allergen that causes the allergic reaction. In the case of synthetic clothing, it must be replaced with cotton. If the cause is contacting with metal, take measures to ensure that such products do not touch exposed areas of the body. When using chemical detergents and laundry detergents, use additional personal protective equipment (gloves) or replace them with another type.
As for the drug therapy of contact allergic dermatitis, there are a lot of various ointments, antihistamines, sorbents.
It is important to remember that taking any drugs to reduce allergic reactions and inflammation is permissible only after consulting a dermatologist and an allergist.
Erythroderma or exfoliative dermatitis
This is one of the serious skin diseases that occur in both children and adults, more often in men after 40 years.
In addition to flaking of the skin in places of extensive redness, the disease proceeds with fever, severe itching, and sweating, and a general weakness develops in the body.
Newborns get sick due to a weak and not formed immunity.
Erythroderma in adults occurs as a result of severe seborrheic or atopic dermatitis, lichen redness, psoriasis. In some cases, it can be provoked by taking drugs or malignant neoplasms.
The initial symptom is thinning of the dermis in separate areas on the body, head, perineum or limbs, the formation of small bubbles. After their rupture, the formation of a scaly crust begins.
The patient can become bald, lose his nails in the future. This is accompanied by severe itching, palpitations, fever, swelling of lymph nodes. In some cases, the spleen and liver, the male mammary glands are enlarged.
Therapy of exfoliative dermatitis
Adults are treated on an outpatient basis, with mandatory procedures to cure the underlying disease. Among with a strict diet (you can not eat fatty meats and foods, sweets and fruits, chocolate, nuts, citrus fruits), the doctor prescribes a method of soothing and hormonal remedies, medical ointments, compresses, and lotions.
In cases of children, the disease is treated only in the inpatient unit of a medical institution, in a separate box with permanent changeable linen and prophylactic baths under the strict supervision of the attending physician. Antibiotics and probiotics are used in exceptional cases to prevent diarrhea. The affected areas are treated with protective ointments and salicylic alcohol. The box is subject to continuous processing of quartz lamps.
The inflammatory process of the person’s skin, after penetrating the body with irritating agents through the gastrointestinal tract, injections, the respiratory system occurring in an acute form is called drug eruption or dermatitis caused by substances ingested.
This may be due to the intake of various medicinal drugs of individual intolerance (antibiotics, antidiabetic), foods containing a variety of dyes, preservatives, stabilizers. The disease is often manifested on the hands. Seafood, chicken protein, fruit, vegetables, berries are much less likely to cause inflammation of the skin.
Dermatitis of this form has 3 stages of development:
- easy — at the first appearances it causes slight redness and sparing itching. It stops almost immediately after the exclusion of the drug, ingested from a diet or medical procedures;
- medium — there is a burning sensation of the skin, an increase in the number of bubbles and an itchy feeling. In some cases, body temperature rises;
- severe — characterized by an abundant rash all over the body, weakness, increased irritability, nausea, vomiting, a sharp increase in temperature.
Treatment of drug eruption
For effective treatment, after determining the causative agent of inflammation, all contacts with it or its use are stopped. Patients are advised to drink plenty of fluids, follow a strict, gentle diet. Depending on the severity of the disease, the doctor may prescribe laxative, diuretic drugs. In special cases, treatment is carried out in the inpatient unit under the strict supervision of medical personnel.
The phenomenon of inflammation of the buttocks with a rash, redness, and itching of babies of the first 2 years of life, is called diaper dermatitis. This type of dermatitis can be caused due to several factors:
- mechanical, primarily associated with the use of children’s hygiene items (diapers), which are badly ventilated. Long-term stay of a child without changing diapers leads to constant contact of the child’s body with stool and tissue, causing injury to the delicate child’s body;
- chemical, associated with the use of detergents for a child of poor quality, prolonged exposure of ammonia to the skin under a diaper;
- physiological, related to the structure of the skin of the infant, with hypersensitivity or infectious disease.
Often these factors are combined, the child becomes restless, rash, redness, blisters with a clear liquid appear in places of inflammation.
Diaper dermatitis therapy
The golden rule to avoid dermatitis at this age is to improve the hygiene of the child. You have to change diapers in time, wash or bathe the child in warm baths with water extract of chamomile, turn. To relieve irritation children’s ointments, creams, powders are used. Air procedures in the open air, in a warm room, contribute to the elimination of inflammation.
Before using any medication you have to consult a pediatrician.
Prevention of all types of dermatitis
The golden rule of medicine is “prevention is better than cure”. It is applicable to all types of dermatitis. The main condition is in compliance with the following requirements:
- lead a quiet lifestyle, avoid stressful situations, long-term stay in adverse temperature conditions;
- daily care of the skin of the body, to prevent drying and waterlogging, to ensure balanced nutrition of the skin;
- reduce the use of various deodorants, talc for hands, antibacterial soap;
- avoid contact with allergens as much as possible;
- conduct daily water procedures;
- at the first suspicion of the disease contact a dermatologist.
Fulfillment of these rules in combination with measured physical activity, an adjusted period of rest and sleep, refusal of bad habits will help to avoid such diseases as dermatitis.