Diaper dermatitis — signs, treatment and prevention
Why does diaper dermatitis occur?
Types of diaper dermatitis
Symptoms of the disease
How to treat diaper dermatitis?
Traditional medicine against dermatitis
Complications and predictions
Most often, diaper rash occurs in the gluteal region and inner thighs. The main causes of this unpleasant phenomenon are:
- The contact of the tender body of a newborn with a diaper. Friction occurs and the upper layer of the epithelium is damaged.
- Salts of fatty acids, ammonia from urine and various irritating enzymes from stools hit the skin.
- High room temperature, high or low air humidity increase perspiration, which causes diaper rash.
- Ingress of pathogenic microorganisms into the intestine, in particular, Escherichia coli. Vulnerable skin of the baby reacts to the violation of the intestinal microflora by the appearance of dermatitis.
- The most common factor in the occurrence of this type of skin disease is the neglect of child’s hygiene. In order to minimize or prevent rash at all, it is necessary to change the diapers in time. The use of gauze diapers is not recommended.
It is worth noting that diaper dermatitis does not have the form of skin candidiasis. However, in the presence of a fungal infection in the body (Candida albicans), the course of the inflammatory process is greatly aggravated. If you do not follow the body hygiene of infants, this will cause the increased activity of fungi.
Often, when treating a baby with antibiotics that kill both harmful and beneficial bacteria, a fungal infection becomes provocateurs of diaper dermatitis.
More rare causes of diaper rash include:
- Wrong diet, vitamins, and minerals disbalance.
- Child intolerance to cosmetics.
- A genetic feature of the baby, the tendency to allergies (atopic dermatitis, enteropathic acrodermatitis).
Diaper rash can occur in different parts of the body. This pathology of the dermis is divided into the following types:
- An affection of the neck in places of folds where parts of the contents of the stomach often get as a result of regurgitation. They contain acid, which increases the irritation of the delicate skin layer.
- Perianal dermatitis is an inflammation of the skin around the anus. Caused by a special enzyme composition of feces. Depends on the mother’s nutrition when breastfeeding or on the use of ready-made mixtures with artificial feeding
- Diaper rash in the area of the inguinal folds.
- Depending on the composition of urine genital dermatitis can occur.
The concept of diaper dermatitis is quite generalized, it includes a wide range of different types of skin lesions:
- ПоChafing is the most common, requires timely treatment and responds well to it without any complications.
- Seborrheic dermatitis — the appearance of yellowish-brown scales, which are not limited to the diaper area, can affect various parts of the body.
- Edge dermatitis — rashes caused by the rubbing of the skin with the edges of the diaper.
- Candida dermatitis — red rash in the groin area. Three days after its appearance, the infection penetrates the body.
- Atopic dermatitis may appear on different parts of the child’s body, it is very itchy.
- Intertrigo is caused by rubbing the skin against the skin. As soon as urine appears in such vulnerable places, the degree of skin lesion increases, it turns red and causes discomfort.
- In the case of impetigo, diaper rash is caused by a staphylococcus infection. Two types were revealed — bullous and nonbullous. It affects the buttocks, lower abdomen and thighs.
The first signs of diaper dermatitis are small patches of reddish skin, with bubbles and peeling. Diaper rash appears in most cases in the genital area, on the buttocks, inner thighs. These are the places where the products of feces and urine can get.
If the primary symptoms are neglected and no measures are taken, the pathology will move to a more severe stage, and purulent sores will form at the sites of redness. The affected area may increase and cover the abdomen and part of the back. Puffiness can appear on the body of the baby.
Diaper dermatitis is characterized by the appearance of such formations:
- Redness on clearly defined areas.
- Papules are small.
- Bubbles with turbid liquid.
The main signs of the disease:
- Redness remains for more than 4 days, the boundaries of the affected areas are clearly outlined, the epidermis begins to flake off.
- The child behaves restlessly, trying to remove the diaper.
- Sleep disturbance, the baby often cries.
- As soon as the first symptoms show up, you should consult a doctor. Otherwise, light diaper rash will become more severe. It is important to prevent the development of the disease so that dermatitis does not spread to more extensive skin areas.
На этом фото можно рассмотреть, как выглядит пеленочный дерматит:
The pediatrician conducts an external examination, makes a preliminary diagnosis. After receiving the results of blood tests, as well as feces for dysbacteriosis, the diagnosis is clarified. Having determined the type of bacteria with the help of a smear taken from the affected area, the doctor finally establishes the diagnosis and prescribes the treatment.
It is important to note that in the case of a severe form of the disease, when the body temperature rises sharply and the rash becomes purple-blue and there are pustules on them, urgent medical assistance is needed.
Diaper dermatitis is diagnosed in babies up to 2–3 years old and is observed in 60% of children. Most often, it appears in 4-6 monthly babies.
It is extremely important to choose the right method of treatment because it will depend on how soon the child gets rid of such an unpleasant disease. You can not delay the treatment, so as not to aggravate the situation. Against the background of neglected diaper rash, a secondary infection may appear that can penetrate deep into the epidermis and significantly complicate the healing process.
At the first symptoms, fast treatment will help. It is enough to hold several sessions of air baths. The skin of a baby is tender, but it has the ability to regenerate quickly. It is enough to get rid of the causes that have triggered diaper dermatitis in a baby, and it can pass without a trace. Naturally, we should not forget about the strictest hygiene.
The doctor recommends treatment in the following sequence:
- After removing the diaper, wash the body with warm water, wipe with a soft cloth, do not rub.
- When bathing, use only neutral soap or eliminate any detergents at all.
- Before using the ointment to organize the baby air bath.
- Treat affected areas with a cotton wool swab dipped in an infusion of medicinal herbs (chamomile, oak bark).
- Apply the remedy recommended by the doctor (Lanolin, Zinc ointment, Vaseline, Sudocrem, Bepanthen, Drapolene, etc.).
- In the presence of a fungus, it is possible to prescribe Clotrimazole or Miconazole.
- Antibacterial ointments (tetracycline for example) are prescribed for suppurations.
Medications such as ordinary Baneocin powder, which is much more effective than talcum, will help to overcome the disease.
If diaper rash has a fungal nature, the dermatologist selects antifungal ointments individually. Travogen or Ecostatin can be prescribed.
Natamycin is applied at the very early age of an infant.
Ointment treatment lasts for 7 days. Apply them twice a day. The main thing is that before using the skin has to be clean and dry.
In order to dry the skin, Desitin can be used. Ointments such as Bepanthen have a protective property and help restore the epidermis after diaper dermatitis.
The doctor will tell how to treat diaper dermatitis and how to carry out the procedure.
Important! Ointment or powder can be used on the same affected area separately. Their simultaneous use is completely unacceptable.
If necessary, tablets are prescribed, such as Itraconazole, Ketoconazole.
If pills are included in the course of treatment with ointments, it is extended to 2 weeks.
Herbal decoctions are known for their beneficial effect, they soften the delicate skin of a newborn, eliminate itching, relieve peeling, relieve inflammation. This is evidenced by numerous reviews, people share their knowledge, which is proven practice.
Chopped oats are poured with ¼ l of water, brought to a boil and insisted for 30-40 minutes. Then the mass is passed through the gauze and added to the tub. It is enough to keep the child in a warm bath for a quarter of an hour. This procedure is repeated for 7 days, and a positive result is guaranteed.
With a strong itch, you can resort to using a mush of raw potatoes. Apply potato gruel to problem areas, leave it there for 20-25 minutes. After that, you must take a damp cotton swab and remove the mass. When celery root is added to the potato, a quick effect is guaranteed.
Infusions of celandine, chamomile, bidens have benefits. It is necessary to take equal parts of dry herbs (only 20 g), pour them with 200 ml of boiling water, insist in a closed vessel for 30 minutes and add the remedy in the bath. Bathing the baby will bring great relief, relieve inflammation and restore the skin. The procedure should be carried out for 7-10 days in a row.
Leaves of St. John’s wort (30 g) are poured with heated olive oil. Within 2 weeks, the mixture is infused in a warm place with daily stirring. Process the painful areas of the baby’s skin with the obtained infusion.
Attentive and prudent parents prefer to avoid diaper rash in a child. Preventive actions are simple but very important:
- Regular change of diapers, at least every 4 hours during the day. Before putting on a new diaper, you must give time for the skin to breathe.
- Do not use waterproof underwear to avoid candidal dermatitis.
- Cheap diapers of dubious quality can cause skin disease.
- Use a neutral detergent when washing the baby, which should be carried out after each emptying of the bladder or intestines.
- Do not wrap the child excessively before going for a walk, as parents most often do in winter. The child’s body overheats, air access is shut, which can cause diaper rash.
- Do air baths several times a day.
Diaper dermatitis can go to a more severe stage when infection of the epidermis occurs, resulting in abscesses.
As for predictions, at the first stage, with proper implementation of medical recommendations, the disease can subside after 3-4 days.
A neglected disease can cause recurrences, which will significantly complicate the cure. In such cases, you will need to be examined by a specialist.