Dry dermatitis — disease, caused by excessive dryness of skin
Etiology of the disease
The true nature of this disease has not yet been fully determined. One of the most common causes is the presence of the fungus Pityrosporum ovale, which provokes pityrosporum infections. The skin is constantly flaky, there is an endless itch, a person scratches the affected body. Cracks, crusts are formed. Dry dermatitis on the scalp causes severe fragility of the hair, they lose their aesthetic appeal.
The disease occurs predominantly in the cool season. It requires an immediate visit to the dermatologist at the first suspicion, otherwise, it will be very difficult to get rid of it. A disease that is not untreated in time can cause a number of complications — a burdened form of dermatitis that is spread throughout the body, secondary infection with a deep lesion of the epidermis.
The special contingent of the people subject to this illness is allocated:
- Elderly people.
- Allergic persons.
- People with congenital dry skin.
There are internal factors that activate the development of the fungus:
- The presence of the endocrine system disease.
- Weakened immunity.
- Both types of diabetes.
- Tinea versicolor.
- Inadequate or unhealthy diet.
- Nervous exhaustion and other disorders of the central nervous system.
External reasons include
- The dry atmosphere in the room.
- Prolonged exposure to hot or frosty weather.
- Passion for such products as nuts, citrus, cocoa, honey, milk.
- Fungi ingress from the external environment.
- Inhalation of dust.
- Reaction to cat and/or dog hair and enzymes secreted by the skin of the animal.
- The use of non-certified cosmetics and perfumes.
- Contact and inhalation of household chemicals.
- Neglect of hygiene rules.
- Psychosomatic disorders.
- Chronic diseases
Dry dermatitis creates a lot of problems for a person, including physical and moral ones. It is very important not to neglect the disease, but to seek medical help in time. As more delayed treatment becomes, as more difficult it is and a person may have negative consequences. Venous insufficiency, varicose veins, severe edema, secondary infection are among them.
Symptoms and forms of illness
Dry dermatitis especially affects the feet, but other parts of the body often suffer from this unpleasant disease.
The main symptoms are:
- Thickening of the skin.
- Bubbles and blisters.
The disease can be in acute and chronic forms. When acute, the following signs are added to the main ones:
– pain syndrome.
The considered type of the disease is divided into the following subspecies:
Atopic is a hereditary type, refers to chronic diseases. The treatment is based on the hydration and restoration of the lipid layer with moisturizing creams and ointments. Infants often suffer from this disease, which is provoked by maternal malnutrition, an improper selection of baby food or by the reaction to a certain type of medication.
Seborrheic dermatitis occurs as a result of pathogenic yeast-like fungi reproduction. Under the influence of fungal colonies in the skin tissues, the sebaceous glands malfunction arises, the composition of secretory liquid changes. It becomes viscous and thick, unable to freely pass through the ducts.
It occurs more often in the male half of the population because it is the androgens that control the activity of the sebaceous glands.
It is the reduction of local immunity that gives the green light to fungi, which are always present even on healthy skin. During exacerbation of seborrheic dermatitis, when eczema appears on the skin, the microflora of the skin surface consists of 70% of yeast-like fungi (normal rate is 30%).
This type of dry dermatitis can affect the scalp with obvious symptoms:
- Skin tightening.
- Cracks between the hair.
- Yellowish plaques of various shapes and diameters.
- Hair becomes thin.
- Increased hair loss.
- Itching and burning.
If the disease affects the face area, it covers such places:
- An area behind the ears.
- Places between the nose and lips.
Acne appears on the face, the skin becomes red, with increased sweating itching increases as well. Peeling causes the appearance of white and yellow scales.
It is especially difficult to endure the seb derm on the face to men with a mustache and beard. Plaques can grow into nodules that can form a large pathological focus. In the case of secondary infection, erythroderma is not excluded, the skin peels off with large plates, leaving wounds and erosion after this.
Seborrhea occurs on the background of digestive tract dysfunction, hormonal imbalance. The disease has a hereditary factor, develops in the presence of infectious chronic diseases.
The disease can occur from contact with allergens or other factors that cause disruption of skin functions:
- Ultraviolet irradiation.
- Contact with aggressive allergenic substances.
Allergic dry dermatitis is a manifestation of a negative reaction to various kinds of stimuli. People who have weak immunity suffer from this type of illness.
Dry dermatitis can also be divided into the following types: contact and toxicodermic.
The first one may appear on the arms or other parts of the body. It can be allergic and simple. Allergic-type can be caused by temperature or radiation exposure. The reason for the simple type may be scuffs from uncomfortable shoes or tight clothes.
Toxicodermic dry dermatitis can be caused by internal factors, like ingestion of pathogens, fungal infections, etc.
The photo shows how dry dermatitis looks like:
How to diagnose and treat dry dermatitis?
When the first symptoms appear, self-medication is strictly contraindicated. Even a dermatologist does not guarantee the correct diagnosis based on a visual examination. Therefore, it is foolish enough to try to cope with such an insidious skin disease yourself. The doctor will conduct the examination, sending the patient to pass laboratory tests and bacterial biomaterial.
The obtained information allows confirming the preliminary diagnosis, made on the basis of anamnesis.
When developing a treatment program, the doctor takes into account all the data, regarding the type of disease, individual characteristics of the patient. Treatment must be timely, otherwise, complications are inevitable. If skin cracks and wounds appear, then this is an open gate for secondary infection.
The course of treatment is aimed at solving such problems:
- Disposal of irritants and other provoking external factors.
- In the case of an infectious form, conduct therapy to destroy the pathogen.
- Get rid of the effects of allergens, like food, chemical, temperature.
The doctor recommends the patient a special hypoallergenic diet, prescribes antihistamine medicines, ointments and creams with a moisturizing and regenerating effect. At a more severe stage, synthetic corticosteroids are often used. Methods of traditional medical treatment are not excluded.
To get rid of atopic dermatitis, a medical complex is needed that contains medicines for internal and external use:
- Antihistamine pills are recommended for relieving itching and burning.
- Non-hormonal ointments with anti-inflammatory and antiseptic properties are also included in the recommended list of medicines.
- Aniline dyes: brilliant green or carbolfuchsin are able to eliminate and prevent the spread of infection.
- Antimicrobial or antibacterial agents can cope with pathogenic bacteria or viruses.
- Patients with blood pressure often suffer from dysbiosis, so the probiotics are prescribed for them.
- The prescription of hormonal drugs is carried out in exceptional cases, especially carefully they are recommended for children.
Seborrheic dry dermatitis also requires treatment in combination, using various forms of medicines and other treatment methods:
- Appointment of sedatives contributes to the normalization of the nervous system.
- Pharmacological mineral preparations, which contain sulfur and zinc, regenerate the skin, restore it to normal, stabilize its protective functions.
- Replacing missing vitamins.
- Immunomodulators are prescribed to strengthen the body’s ability to resist the ravages of fungi.
- To eliminate the infection, it is recommended to use antifungal shampoos containing Ketoconazole, medical tar, Ciclopirox, zinc pyrithione.
- Anti-fungal creams and ointments for the treatment of affected areas.
- For lotions use solutions of salicylic acid, borax or sulfur.
Seborrheic dermatitis on the face is treated with ketoconazole (cream and tablet form). The effect does not come immediately, it will take from two to four weeks. The outer remedy is applied in a thin layer onto the areas covered with dermatitis for 15 minutes, then removed by rinsing with room temperature water.
Before using the above-mentioned cream, the head, hands, feet, back and/or chest are treated with the antiseptic agent Chlorhexidine. After 10-15 minutes, the drug is washed off with warm water.
Low-energy laser radiation gives a high efficiency, helps to consolidate the attainments of drug therapy. Inflammation stops, swelling goes away, the level of sensitivity returns to normal, local immunity increases markedly.
Physiotherapeutic methods also include:
- Ultraviolet irradiation.
- Electrophoresis with antihistamines.
- Phonophoresis with corticosteroids.
- Electromagnetic therapy.
The average period during which the skin regenerates is 1 month. That is exactly what will be required for carrying out therapy in combination with diet and physical procedures. By the way, it is better to continue the diet after treatment, so as not to provoke relapses.
Folk medicine tips
Treatment of skin diseases with herbs and other home-made medicines is fully supported by representatives of official medicine, but only with prior medical consultation.
Judging by the reviews, several time-tested remedies for external use can be easily prepared at home:
Cow’s milk and glycerin (5 ml each) are poured into the rice flour to get the consistency of the ointment. Lubricate the affected areas twice a day.
Cranberry Itching Ointment
Squeezed cranberry juice (1/4 cup) is combined with petroleum jelly (200 g or 7 oz).
Take a non-transparent dish, a glass of refined sunflower oil, crushed St. John’s Wort (2 tablespoons), mix them in a homogeneous mass and leave for 20 days in a place protected from sunlight. Apply to problem areas three times a day.
Mashed Raw Potatoes
Peel raw potatoes, chop them with a blender, in a meat grinder or grate. Drain excess juice put the rest of the mass on a soft cloth and attach it to the affected areas. You can fix the plaster. Keep lotion for about an hour.
Rubbed oak bark (5 tablespoons) is filled with purified water (350 ml), boiled for 10-15 minutes. Leave in a saucepan with the lid closed for 6 hours. Then add 4 teaspoons of a honey bee and mix it. The remedy is gently rubbed into the skin and left for half an hour. Then rinse with warm water. Apply the decoction every other day to obtain the expected result.
It is impossible to get rid of dry dermatitis by using only medications. A special diet is required, which allows such products:
– fruit and vegetable juices freshly squeezed without sugar and salt;
– spring water, fruit drinks, compotes;
– rabbit, chicken, quail meat;
– sea fish;
– vegetable oil in limited quantities;
– weak green tea;
– pumpkin, seaweed, asparagus, lettuce, spinach, zucchini, cabbage;
– low-fat milk kefir and cottage cheese;
– watermelon, cherry, cranberries, blueberries.
It is not recommended eating:
– sausages and other smoked meats;
– pickled vegetables and mushrooms;
– whole milk;
– animal fats;
– fried food;
– other products that are allergens for a particular person.
It is advisable to adhere to proper nutrition for later life. This will give a reliable guarantee not to provoke an exacerbation of the disease if it is in remission. After all, this kind of ailments is rarely completely cured, most often they become chronic and subside for a rather long period, up to several years.
Forecasts and prevention
It is not easy to predict how effective the treatment will be and whether a complication will occur. However, to assume approximate forecasts is quite realistic. Like many other skin diseases, dry dermatitis can be cured completely only at the first stage of its development.
An important condition for getting rid of the disease is the observance of the personal hygiene rules, quitting smoking and alcohol, elimination of irritating factors. Prevention includes healthy eating and physical activity: walking, sports, physical therapy.