Infective dermatitis: characteristic, complex treatment
Characteristics and classification of infective dermatitis
Pathological manifestations of infective dermatitis (ID) occur at the time of another illness, among which may be: measles, varicella, rubella. Regarding the total number of dermatitis diseases, this type of pathology accounts for up to 25%.
In addition to viral infection, ID can be caused by bacteria as well. Staphylococcus and Streptococcus have the most destructive activity. Behind them by the degree of intensity are fungal infections, Candida for example. And, finally, venereal diseases.
The physically weaker the body, the more likely it is to catch the infection, which will have a destructive effect on the epidermis. Moreover, the upper layers of the dermis and deeper ones can be affected too.
By the nature of the etiology ID can be divided into the following types:
- Viral (chickenpox, measles, rubella, herpes).
- Bacterial (scarlet fever, impetigo).
- Protozoan (parasites infection).
- Pyoderma (caused by pyogenic microorganisms, such as staphylococcus and streptococcus).
There is such a type of ailment as atopic infective dermatitis. It happens in childhood when secondary infectious disease joins allergic dermatitis. Various pathogens are getting into the scratched wounds.
In the photo, infectious dermatitis, symptoms in children:
Drivers of ID occurrence
This disease has an important feature — it can manifest itself as an independent one or against the background of another disease that began earlier.
Typical infective dermatitis causes include:
- The presence of infectious diseases, acquired through sexual contact.
- Complications of existing diseases in the body in the form of secondary infection.
- Exposure to staphylococcus and streptococcus that have penetrated injured skin.
- The postoperative period when the patient’s immunity is extremely weak.
The progression of infective dermatitis occurs under the influence of the following factors:
- The intoxication of the body, which took a chronic form.
- Immunity deficiency, chronic or congenital.
- Neglect of personal hygiene.
- Chronic diseases of the liver, digestive tract.
- Problems with venous circulation.
- Features of age periods: infant, adolescent, menopausal.
- Dysfunction of the central nervous system.
- Genetic predisposition.
- Weak individual ability to resist pathogens.
The main signs of ID
Before talking about the symptoms, it is worth recalling that the disease can be transmitted in two ways: hematogenous and through direct contact.
The photo shows infectious dermatitis on the hands:
Infective dermatitis can be identified using obvious symptoms that are noticeable in the process of visual examination of the patient’s skin surface:
- Rash on the surface of the skin (their intensity, shape, and location may be different, depending on the type of infectious agent).
- Burning, tingling, itching.
- Hyperemia caused by abrupt blood flow to the vessels under the influence of infectious agents.
- Peeling, very dry skin.
- Swelling painful areas.
- Body temperature above normal.
The presence of one or more of these signs is a signal to go to a dermatologist.
The photo shows symptoms of infectious dermatitis, which require complex treatment:
Infective dermatitis in children is manifested by additional symptoms:
- Poor sleep, anxiety.
Each pathogen causes specific symptoms:
- In the case of measles, there is a deterioration of the general condition, high fever, rashes have papules and red color.
- In case of a scarlet fever patient, rashes turn into large spots when small specks merge. Starting from the shoulders and arms, the disease affects the rest of the body: abdomen, back, legs.
- Small bubbles throughout the body, including the face, scalp, are characteristic of chickenpox. Such disease is more peculiar for childhood. The child is experiencing uncontrollable itching. When picking crusts at the site of opened blisters, traces may remain — so-called pocks.
- In case of typhus, rash with clear contours appears on the 4-5 day on the hands, stomach, chest glands. Then, after several days, the pigmentation changes.
- Enteroviral infection manifests as spots throughout the body.
- Signs of scabies on the feet, hands, abdomen.
- In the case of syphilis, pathological formations appear in the form of nodules, spots, ulcers throughout the body.
In the photo, infectious dermatitis, symptoms on the legs:
Sometimes it is hard to identify infective dermatitis due to the fact that it may be a separate ailment or be secondary.
A preliminary diagnosis is made after an examination and on the basis of the patient’s answers to the doctor’s questions. However, given the fact that the infection may be of a different nature, it is impossible to do diagnosis without laboratory examination.
A blood test is required to evaluate the extent of the inflammatory process by the level of leukocytes. The contents of papules and particles of pathological material are also analyzed to identify the infection and determine its type.
In the case of ID diagnosis, it is necessary to differentiate from other ailments, the symptoms of which are very similar:
- Acne is an inflammatory process in the sebaceous glands.
- Acne rash is a disease caused by changes in hormonal levels.
- Atopic dermatitis based on allergic reactions.
A survey using serological methods allows identifying infectious agents, to study in detail the nature of the antibodies.
Histological studies are carried out to obtain a more detailed clinic, as a result, the exact cause of the disease is established. This fact allows you to develop an effective treatment program.
If the patient is confused and does not know which doctor he is best to contact, you should heed the following advice: first of all, you should go to a dermatologist. As well, you may need to consult a therapist, a gastroenterologist, an infectious diseases specialist, a virologist. If the patient is a child, he will certainly be helped by a pediatrician, who will make the necessary decision, and, if needed, he will be referred to a specialist.
If the result of the examination revealed a specific pathogen, the doctor is much easier to cope with the development of an effective treatment course. In the presence of a fungal infection, the patient receives antifungal drugs. If bacteria caused the disease, then antibiotics are indicated for such a patient.
The doctor understands that the latest drugs can destroy not only pathogenic but also beneficial bacteria, as a result of which, the protective resources of the patient’s body decrease dramatically. Therefore, immunomodulators are recommended to support immunity.
Such potent drugs, like glucocorticosteroids, are prescribed in exceptional cases when previous drugs have not caused the desired effect.
In addition to oral and intramuscular methods of drug acceptance, external treatment is prescribed for ID. In order to provide an antiseptic effect, a solution of methylene blue is prescribed, as well as various anti-inflammatory and anti-itching creams.
To enhance the effect after taking medication drugs, it is recommended to undergo physiotherapy procedures:
- Magnet therapy.
- Ozone therapy.
- Laser treatment.
- Ultraviolet light therapy.
Complications of ID
If a patient has resorted to the help of medical professionals in time, he is not at risk of complications. In general, this type of disease responds well to therapy. With a properly established diagnosis and strict adherence to all medical prescriptions, the outcome of treatment is favorable.
If you do self-medication or unfairly follow a doctor’s prescription, a normal ID can become chronic with periodic exacerbation and remissions.
The negative aspects can be displayed in the form of traces that spoil the appearance of a person, such as scars, reduced or enhanced pigmentation. These marks do not cause physical torment, but they can lead to a moral discomfort. A person disfigured by such consequences becomes depressed, self-doubted, cannot live a full life, fixates on the negative aspects.
When the extent of the lesion reaches its maximum, complications such as sepsis become extremely life-threatening. This can happen with improper treatment or its absence.
It is possible to minimize the chance of getting an ID. To do this, we must take as a rule the implementation of such activities:
- Maintain personal hygiene. In addition to keeping the skin clean, monitor the level of its moisture, prevent excessive drying.
- Do not contact with objects, people and animals that may be a source of infection.
- Healthy nutrition (a complete diet with the content of essential nutrients).
- Physical activity.
- Do not get involved in bad habits: exclude smoking and alcoholic beverages.
- Take a cold shower.
- At the first suspicion of ID, immediately go to the doctor.
It is possible to prevent infective dermatitis, but the probability of its occurrence cannot be completely excluded. After all, it is impossible to create an absolutely sterile environment without pathogenic microbes and bacteria.