Rosacea — causes, symptoms, treatment
Causes of the disease
The causes of perioral dermatitis, which is also called rosacea, are still unknown. However, risk factors are known that together can lead to it:
- the use of creams and ointments containing steroid hormones, for example, Prednisolone. This reason leads to the appearance of the rash most often, so long-term use of funds in this group is considered as one of the diagnostic signs;
- the use of makeup products (tonal means, lipsticks), which includes potential allergens;
- a negative impact of natural factors (high humidity, frost or excessive insolation). The disease may occur after moving to another climate zone or with a sharp change in weather;
- rosacea is often observed in patients suffering from disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, for example, prolonged constipation, dysbacteriosis, gastric and duodenal ulcers;
- often the main reason for the development of the disease are microorganisms that inhabit the hair follicles. This may be fungi or bacteria, which are often detected by analyzing data of bacteriological seeding of the contents of the rash. However, specific microorganisms that cause dermatitis could not be detected;
- rosacea is exacerbated during periods of stress or after strong emotional upheavals. Most likely, this is due to impaired neurohumoral regulation of the body;
- the use of low-quality toothpaste containing fluoride leads to the appearance of a rash;
- the state of the endocrine system plays considerable importance in the occurrence of rash. Rosacea in women often occurs during the period of premenstrual syndrome, while taking oral contraceptives or when hormonal disorders.
Cosmetics play an important role in the development of rosacea. Especially dangerous are:
- cinnamon-scented products;
- cosmetics based on petrolatum and paraffin;
- products containing sodium lauryl sulfate.
The main symptoms of the disease are as follows:
- burning sensation and tightness of the skin in the lips. Burning is most pronounced in the area of the fold between the mouth and the nose;
- a rash appears around the red border of the lips in the form of red papules filled with fluid. Papules may be located singly or in groups;
- the skin around the mouth is inflamed. On the inflamed areas, small scales are formed, which can fall from time to time. It is not recommended to remove the scales by yourself: this can lead to the appearance of scars or hyperpigmented skin areas;
- one of the most characteristic symptoms of rosacea is considered to be a thin, clean strip of skin around the lips;
- if the affected areas become infected, the rash turns into ulcers.
People who have dermatitis on the face, often experience pronounced psychological discomfort. The obtained defect makes the patients no longer communicate with others, they become isolated and even quit their jobs. Therefore, treatment should not be delayed, otherwise skin damage may become irreversible and unattractive scars will appear on the face. Especially often this occurs if a bacterial infection joins this type of dermatitis.
For the diagnosis of rosacea, dermatological examination and dermatoscopy are carried out. It is important to remember that dermatitis in women is easily confused with acne, demodicosis, as well as atopic and contact dermatitis. Therefore, before you begin treatment, you should consult with a specialist.
Clinical tests for the diagnosis of rosacea are rarely prescribed. This is due to the fact that changes in the biochemical parameters of blood are not typical for the disease. Sometimes when joining a bacterial infection, there is an increase in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate.
To determine the microflora of the affected skin areas, bacteriological seeding of the contents of papules is performed. Often, patients are found fungi of the genus Candida, but doctors do not consider them to the causative agents of the disease. It is believed that fungal infection is a predisposing factor, and not the cause of the development of rosacea.
Rosacea during pregnancy
Often, perioral dermatitis on the face of women appears during pregnancy. This is due to the following factors:
- changes in hormonal activity;
- a decrease in immunity is observed in the first months of pregnancy.
Usually, rosacea appears in the first trimester of pregnancy. During this period you cannot use antibiotics and many other drugs for the treatment of perioral dermatitis on the face. Therefore, an individual treatment plan is developed for each patient.
Often, rosacea passes without treatment after the end of the period of physiological immunodeficiency. However, if the rash causes severe discomfort, you should consult a doctor.
It is important to remember that the places where the rash is localized tend to pigment profusely, which can lead to a cosmetic defect. Therefore, in the case of rosacea, pregnant women should avoid exposure to direct sunlight.
Features of rosacea in children
In children, rosacea has its own characteristics. Rashes rarely have a red color: they are usually pink or brownish. Therefore, children are required to conduct bacteriological seeding of papules and dermatoscopy to clarify the diagnosis and exclude contact or atopic dermatitis. Most often, rosacea in a child occurs without discomfort. In rare cases, itching is noted in the area of the rash.
This disease is usually associated with the use of inhalers and sprays, which include glucocorticosteroid hormones. It is important to note that during treatment with glucocorticosteroids, symptoms of rosacea are usually absent: the disease debuts a few days after the end of therapy. Also, pediatricians note that rosacea in infants may develop after using the nipples in frosty or windy weather. Some doctors associate dermatitis in children with caries: the child’s body has a chronic inflammatory focus that lowers the immune defenses and causes a rash.
Rosacea is a child requires consultation with a pediatrician: the appearance of a rash may indicate changes in hormonal levels or decreased immunity.
In order to prescribe the treatment of rosacea, the doctor needs to determine the cause of the disease. If dermatitis is caused by the use of creams, which include corticosteroids, the patient must stop using these medicines. Therefore, in the first stage of treatment, a number of patients have a withdrawal syndrome, characterized by severe itching and swelling of the affected area.
At this stage, patients may decide to return to the use of steroid-containing agents. However, this is unacceptable: the symptoms of rosacea return to an even more severe form, and any creams for dermatitis should be applied after consultation with your doctor.
The refusal of cosmetics is recommended, it is especially important to stop using tonal creams and makeup basics for a while. Creams, which include sunscreen ingredients are permissible to use.
Zinc drying means show high efficacy in the treatment of rosacea. Such ointment for dermatitis, as Zincap, quickly relieves itching and help quickly get rid of the rash.
Antiallergic drugs are used to decrease the discomfort. Due to the fact that the occurrence of rosacea may be associated with experienced stress, sedatives are prescribed.
For cleansing the skin you can use oil-based products. If the disease has a weak degree of severity, it is possible to wipe the affected areas with broths of medicinal herbs, for example, with pharmacy chamomile.
If the disease is complicated by a bacterial infection, antibiotics are prescribed. The duration of their reception is determined by the doctor. Usually, a course of antibiotic therapy ranges from two to three months. Additionally, as necessary, immunomodulatory agents are prescribed, as well as preparations that restore the microflora of the gastrointestinal tract.
It is important to remember that in the absence of therapy, the rash may persist on the face for several months or even several years. The disease, in this case, proceeds with exacerbations and periods of remission. Attempts of self-treatment lead to the fact that the affected skin becomes thick, rough and uneven, covered with pigment spots and inflamed areas. It will be much more difficult to eliminate the effects of self-treatment than to get rid of dermatitis!
Forecast and preventive measures
It may take several weeks or even months to fully cure rosacea. It is possible that in the future, after the use of steroid or low-quality cosmetics, the rash will appear again.
To prevent the appearance of rash it is recommended:
- rejection of bad habits. Smoking and alcohol are weakening the body, resulting in reduced immune protection;
- the use of cosmetics recommended for patients with atopic or contact dermatitis;
- do not injure the skin during cosmetic procedures. Scrubbing, peeling, or using some types of facial masks may lead to aggravation;
- toothpaste should be carefully selected;
- it is important to take multivitamin preparations that help strengthen the immune system. It is advisable to choose products that include vitamins of B and E group. These vitamins improve the skin condition and contribute to the rapid recovery of areas damaged by rosacea.
Patients with rosacea are strongly advised to follow a diet that excludes allergenic products.
In the acute period of the disease, the following products should be preferred:
- dairy products;
- porridge, boiled in water, with a small amount of salt;
- grain bread;
- lean meat (chicken breast, turkey, etc).
Food is recommended to be boiled or steamed.
Strong coffee and tea, alcoholic drinks, smoked and canned foods, as well as dishes rich in carbohydrates are excluded from the diet. It is desirable to reduce the amount of salt consumed. Fruits and vegetables have to be included in the diet with caution. You cannot eat exotic fruits that are strong allergens, it is also necessary to exclude citrus fruits.
There are a number of traditional treatments for rosacea. It is important to remember that resorting to such methods is possible only after consulting a dermatologist.
The following remedies are considered to be the most effective:
- medical lotions. Apply decoctions of calendula or chamomile. You have to soak a gauze cloth with warm broth and attach to the damaged area of skin. Lotions do not help to get rid of the rash: they can only significantly reduce the discomfort caused by the disease. However, people who are prone to allergies should be wary of using medicinal plants. They may contain strong allergens;
- linseed oil. This oil contains vitamins that have a beneficial effect on the regenerative capabilities of the skin and its general condition. Oil is heated to a comfortable temperature in a water bath or can be applied to the skin directly with a piece of clothes. Linseed oil can be used to cleanse the skin from makeup.
Now you know about the causes and methods of treatment of rosacea. Do not think that the rash around the mouth can be ignored: its appearance may indicate a serious malfunction in the work of your body. Therefore, in case of suspicious symptoms, go to a doctor and strictly follow all his recommendations!