Seborrheic rash on the child’s body — types, causes, treatment
The causes of seborrheic rash in infants
The appearance of a rash on certain areas of the body (forehead, face, head, groin, back, chest) is a consequence of the inflammation of the skin of the child. This happens due to the “hard work” of the sebaceous glands, which is associated with the formation and maturation of the skin that performs the protective function of the body. This disease is called seborrheic dermatitis. Excessive activity of the sebaceous glands contributes to the increased development of yeast-like fungi, which leads to inflammation of the skin in the places of their colonization. In infants, there is an accumulation of greasy dandruff-like scales on the head. On hairless areas of the body (limbs, folds, breast, neck) red rash, with scales on the perimeter of redness appears. After a certain time, the functioning of the sebaceous glands of babies returns to normal, inflammation stops.
An important factor in the occurrence of seborrheic dermatitis in infants is a disorder at the hormonal level. The maternal hormones left in the child’s body after birth activate the functional work of the sebaceous glands. This favors the formation of greasy crusts with a yellow tinge on the head, face, body folds of the baby, in which the yeast fungus develops.
The ability of the mother’s body to transmit its features and characteristics to the child can trigger seborrheic dermatitis in the newborn. The predisposition of the parents or one of them to such a disease is inherited.
Causes of seborrheic dermatitis in children older than 1 year
At this age, the main causative agent of seborrhoeic dermatitis is a yeast-like fungus that lives on the skin of each person, often on the head. Activation of the production of sebaceous glands helps to improve the nutrient for the fungus and its reproduction. A sharp increase in the number of microorganisms on the scalp increases the number of dead particles of the upper layer of the skin that form scales.
The child’s immature immune system causes a decrease in the protective function of the skin. Lack of personal hygiene, inadequate usage of vitamins, antibiotic misuse lead to disruption of the sebaceous glands and to seborrheic dermatitis.
Features of the disease in adolescents
Adolescence is a special period of human’s life. The hormonal system of the young organism is changing. The unstable psychoemotional state contributes to the emergence of stressful situations. Violation of the regime, balance and caloric intake are also the cause of the activation of the sebaceous glands. That is why in adolescence there is a spread of acne on the face, peeling of the skin, the appearance of dandruff. In addition, the occurance of seborrhea can be influenced by:
- Malfunctions of the digestive organs due to a decrease in the intestine of beneficial microflora and an increase in harmful ones, which leads to disruption of metabolic processes at the cellular level, imbalances the work on the secretion of all glands, including sebaceous glands.
- Activation of the sebaceous glands leads to an increase in the production of subcutaneous fat and the abundant development of yeast-like fungi, the appearance of dandruff.
- The lack of A, E group vitamins contributes to the violation of the sebaceous glands in the direction of increasing the production of secretions.
- The wrong choice of shampoo, creams, the abuse of alcohol-based cosmetics harm the skin, provoke dandruff, acne.
- Neglect of headgear in the cold weather, long stay in the sun in the summer heat have a detrimental effect on the skin.
Like adults, children of all age categories suffer from seborrheic dermatitis of dry, oily and mixed types. Schoolchildren and adolescents are more likely to have the oily type of seborrhea.
Treatment of seborrheic dermatitis in children
Self-treatment of seborrhea in children of any age does not always bring the expected result, as the signs of various dermatitis may be the same, and the methods of treatment are different.
On the infant’s head
Let’s not forget about the importance of child care in the first days and months of the its life. Regular water procedures, airing the baby’s room and air exercise, proper personal hygiene are the key to the baby’s health. An important factor is the nutrition of a nursing mother, the fact of taking certain medications.
The first sign of seborrheic dermatitis is always the appearance of dandruff, scaly crusts on the child’s head, their redness.
In this case, it is best to pay attention to the hygiene of the child: bathing, brushing the separated crusts with a soft brush, removing strained scales with tweezers. You can use special shampoos to wash the baby’s head. After water procedures, the baby’s head can be processed with olive or special fortified baby oil, which the pediatrician will advise. In some cases, the doctor prescribes the use of antifungal cream for children.
On the infant’s face
Often the rash goes from the head, covered with hair, on the face and body of the little person. In this case, the child needs to be provided with bathing with limited contact of the facial skin with water. Detergents (gels, soaps, shampoos) can be applied only if they do not irritate of the skin. Water procedures must be completed by wiping a dry child’s body, face with specialized means, which going to soften the skin.
Children over 1 year
Treatment of seborrheic dermatitis in children of preschool and school age is carried out in a complex. With the strict observance of personal hygiene and special nutrition, medicinal preparations of internal and external use are prescribed in combination with physiotherapy. Specific treatment prescribed by the doctor on the basis of the analysis and research.
The conditionality of the use of external agents depends on the form of seborrhoeic dermatitis, the patient’s age. This category of drugs includes medical shampoos and emollient creams, ointments and various cosmetic oils, therapeutic baths.
Enhancement of the child’s immune defense, destruction of a yeast-like fungus on the body and the head, elimination of the factors contributing to the disease are the main direction of the drugs use, which can:
- Calm the nervous system.
- Beat fungus.
- Improve the activity of the digestive organs through the improvement of the intestinal microflora and increase immunity.
- Contain vitamins.
- Regulate the work of the immune system.
The latest developments of physiotherapy allow to improve the blood circulation of the skin, increase skin tone. Massages, the use of a magnet on certain parts of the body, stimulation of specific points with a laser beam, in combination with medicines, can speed up the process of the child’s recovery.
Treatment in adolescents
The process of puberty of girls and boys is strictly individual. For some girls, it starts from 8-9 years and ends by 14-15. In boys, this process begins later, from 11–13 years and ends by 18–20.
During this period, there is an increase in the secretion of the sebaceous glands, which becomes a breeding ground for the yeast-like fungus and the cause of seborrheic dermatitis of the hairy part of the head, face and other parts of the body.
Treatment of seborrheic dermatitis in adolescents is not much different from the treatment of adults. But sometimes it is enough to exclude the chocolate, hot spices and seasonings, pickles from the diet, and dermatitis suspends its development. But it is better to contact a dermatologist, conduct a comprehensive examination, additional tests for highly effective therapeutic measures.
The rash on the body of a teenager is often accompanied by the appearance of acne, itchy scaly plaques. Permanent scratching can lead to a secondary infection.
During this period, it is necessary to normalize metabolic processes at the cellular level, to stabilize the work of the digestive system.
Simultaneously with medical treatment, physiotherapy is carried out. It is designed to improve the action of drugs, prevent recurrence, reduce testosterone levels during puberty of a young body.
Physiotherapy may include:
- The introduction of drugs through the skin of a teenager.
- Special treatment of the affected areas of the body with infrared rays.
- The use of liquid nitrogen for the treatment of affected lesions.
- Use of electric current.
- Breathing procedures with enriched oxygen to improve the metabolic process in the body.
An important role in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis is played by personal hygiene with special shampoos, gels, soaps, and creams.
Prevention of seborrheic dermatitis in children
Seborrheic dermatitis is an inflammation of the skin as a result of a violation of the water balance, inflammatory processes. Children who are prone to skin dryness, flaking, should regularly apply moisturizing creams to the skin.
The course of the disease is more severe in children suffering from neurological disorders and immunodeficiency. It is these ailments that are recommended to give constant attention to prevent the occurrence of dermatitis.
Both for babies and older children, personal hygiene plays an important role. Body cleanliness is the key to preventing seborrheic dermatitis. For water treatments, it is better to use warm water. Hot water causes damage to the skin, which contributes to the ingress of infection, the development of fungi, provoking disease.
Stabilization of the daily diet is one of the main factors in beating dermatitis. Food should be rich in A, E vitamins, which are included in seafood, nuts, vegetable oils. Dietary non-fatty meats, vegetables, berries and fruits, natural freshly prepared juices are the main components of a child’s healthy diet. Limited consumption of cakes, sweets, buns, sugary drinks, fried meat, fatty foods has a beneficial effect on the stabilization of the metabolic process in the body.
There are special requirements for child’s clothing. In cases of infants, all diapers should always be dry and clean, the replacement must be carry out timely. For older children, the clothes should contain only natural smooth materials that do not irritate the skin, provide natural ventilation of the body to prevent excessive sweating of the child.